As Asian countries subscribe to the Paris climate agreement goals, green bonds are providing the finance for climate-related and environmental projects in the region. The supply of Asian US dollar-denominated green bonds rose from just USD 2 Billion in 2015 to USD 17.5 Billion in 2019, and while issuance was hit by COVID-19, it is expected to return to pre-pandemic levels in 2021.
The Asian dollar-denominated green-bond market is now worth USD 50 Billion. That is about half the size of the Asia local-currency green-bond market, but it has been catching up with the global market quickly and now accounts for 24 per cent of the global dollar-denominated green-bond universe, up from 8 per cent five years ago.
China is Asia’s largest issuer and the second-largest globally with USD 22 Billion of dollar bonds outstanding – dominated by banks and property developers – plus USD 96 Billion in renminbi-denominated green bonds. India is next-largest.
The market’s strong growth reflects a rising awareness of environmental, social and governance issues plus increasing demand for ESG and sustainable investment products.
The green financing channel allows issuers to tap into longer-term funding and a larger investor base, permitting issuers to brand themselves as socially and environmentally responsible, despite higher set-up costs for green bonds and additional annual auditing and reporting.
Demand has exceeded supply, with order-books for new issues in 2020, on average, 5.7-times bigger than the bonds available. Asian investors and fund managers are the main buyers.
Yet despite this strong demand, Asian green bonds are priced broadly in line with the region’s non-green bonds, without yield premium seen in developed markets. This may reflect different bond currencies and investor bases plus Europe’s larger pool of ESG and green-bond investors and investments.
And being green does not make bonds safer: 2020 saw the first green-bond default. About three-quarters of Asian dollar green bonds are investment grade – primarily bank, sovereign and quasi-sovereign bonds.
Some USD 10.8 Billion of dollar-denominated green bonds were sold between January and October but we forecast gross issuance of USD 17 Billion to USD 20 Billion in 2021, backed by growing green projects and USD 8 Billion to USD 10 Billion of refinancing, thanks to strong investor demand and favourable government policies.
Pledges by Asian countries to meet Paris Agreement goals include China’s aim for carbon emissions to peak before 2030 with carbon neutrality before 2060; India’s plan to reduce the emission intensity of GDP to below 2005 levels by 2030; Indonesia adopting new and renewable energy for at least 23 per cent of primary energy in 2025; and the Philippines banning new coal-fired power plants. Meanwhile Singapore has introduced a carbon tax, and South Korea hopes to become carbon neutral by 2050.
We believe such policies mean governments will incentivise companies to undertake green projects and encourage broader and easier green financing channels, including green bonds.
Asia’s dollar-based green-bond financing has focused on renewable-energy, energy efficiency and clean-transportation projects to reduce carbon emissions. We now also expect to see more resources allocated to pollution prevention and natural resources management, allowing a greater diversity of issuers to join the green financing market.
First published 5 November 2020.
Would you like to find out more? Click here to read the full report (you must be a subscriber to HSBC Global Research).
Disclosure and disclaimerMore, collapsed
The following analyst(s), economist(s), or strategist(s) who is(are) primarily responsible for this report, including any analyst(s) whose name(s) appear(s) as author of an individual section or sections of the report and any analyst(s) named as the covering analyst(s) of a subsidiary company in a sum-of-the-parts valuation certifies(y) that the opinion(s) on the subject security(ies) or issuer(s), any views or forecasts expressed in the section(s) of which such individual(s) is(are) named as author(s), and any other views or forecasts expressed herein, including any views expressed on the back page of the research report, accurately reflect their personal view(s) and that no part of their compensation was, is or will be directly or indirectly related to the specific recommendation(s) or views contained in this research report: Louisa Lam, CFA,
Fixed income: Basis for financial analysis
This report is designed for, and should only be utilised by, institutional investors. Furthermore, HSBC believes an investor's decision to make an investment should depend on individual circumstances such as the investor's existing holdings and other considerations.
HSBC believes that investors utilise various disciplines and investment horizons when making investment decisions, which depend largely on individual circumstances such as the investor's existing holdings, risk tolerance and other considerations. Given these differences, HSBC has two principal aims in its fixed income research: 1) to identify long-term investment opportunities based on particular themes or ideas that may affect the future earnings or cash flows of companies in corporate credit and based on country-specific ideas or themes that may affect the performance of these bonds in the case of covered bonds, in both cases on a six-month time horizon; 2) to identify trade ideas on a time horizon of up to four months, relating to specific instruments, which are predominantly derived from relative value considerations or driven by events and which, in the case of credit research, may differ from our long-term opinion on an issuer. Buy or Sell refer to a trade call to buy or sell that given instrument; HSBC has assigned a fundamental recommendation structure, as described below, only for its longer-term investment opportunities.
HSBC believes an investor's decision to buy or sell a bond should depend on individual circumstances such as the investor's existing holdings and other considerations. Different securities firms use a variety of terms as well as different systems to describe their recommendations. Investors should carefully read the definitions of the recommendations used in each research report. In addition, because research reports contain more complete information concerning the analysts' views, investors should carefully read the entire research report and should not infer its contents from the recommendation. In any case, recommendations should not be used or relied on in isolation as investment advice.
HSBC Global Research is not and does not hold itself out to be a Credit Rating Agency as defined under the Hong Kong Securities and Futures Ordinance.
Definitions for fundamental credit and covered bond recommendations
Overweight: For corporate credit, the issuer’s fundamental credit profile is expected to improve within the next six months. For covered bonds, the bonds issued in this country are expected to outperform those of the other countries in our coverage over the next six months.
Neutral: For corporate credit, the issuer’s fundamental credit profile is expected to remain stable for up to six months. For covered bonds, the bonds issued in this country are expected to perform in line with those of the other countries in our coverage over the next six months.
Underweight: For corporate credit, the issuer’s fundamental credit profile is expected to deteriorate within the next six months.
For covered bonds, the bonds issued in this country are expected to underperform those of other countries in our coverage over the next six months.Definitions for trades (Rates & Credit)
Buy and Sell refer to a trade call to buy or sell a bond, option on an interest rate swap ("swaption"), interest rate cap or floor, inflation cap or floor, or Total Return Swap ("TRS"). The buyer/seller of a TRS receives/pays the total return of the underlying instrument or index at the end of the period and pays/receives the funding leg.
Buy protection and Sell protection refer to a credit default swap (CDS): the protection buyer/seller is effectively selling/buying the reference entity's credit risk.
Pay and receive refer to a trade call to pay or receive the fixed leg of an interest rate swap (IRS), a non-deliverable IRS, the firstnamed leg of a basis swap, the realised inflation leg of an inflation swap, or a forward rate agreement (FRA). An investor that executes a pay or receive trade is said to be "paid" or "received".
Payer and receiver refer to inflation caps or floors and to swaptions: a payer is an option giving the right but not the obligation to enter a paid position in an interest rate or inflation swap, and a receiver is an option giving the right but not the obligation to enter a received position in an interest rate or inflation swap.
ASW (also asset-swap, Buy on asset swap, Buy on an asset-swapped basis): Buy a bond packaged with a swap that is tailored to eliminate the bond’s interest rate risk, effectively transforming the bond to a floating rate instrument whilst preserving the credit exposure to the bond issuer.
RASW (also reverse asset-swap, Sell on asset swap, Sell on an asset swapped basis): Sell a bond packaged with a swap that is tailored to eliminate the bond’s interest rate risk, effectively transforming the bond to a floating rate instrument whilst preserving the credit exposure to the bond issuer.
Distribution of fundamental credit and covered bond recommendations
As of 03 November 2020, the distribution of all independent fundamental credit recommendations published by HSBC is as follows:
______ All covered issuers _______ Issuers to whom HSBC has provided Investment
Banking in the past 12 months
Count Percentage Count Percentage Overweight 123 26 78 63
Neutral 212 45 103 49
Underweight 134 29 55 41
For the purposes of the distribution above the following mapping structure is used: Overweight = Buy, Neutral = Hold and Underweight = Sell. For rating definitions under both models, please see "Definitions for fundamental credit and covered bond recommendations" above.
Distribution of trades
As of 30 September 2020, the distribution of all trades published by HSBC is as follows:
____ All covered instruments _____ Issuers to whom HSBC has provided Investment Banking in the past 12 months
Recommendation Count Percentage Count Percentage
Buy 157 69 95 61
Sell 69 31 29 42
For the purposes of the distribution above the following mapping structure is used: Buy/Sell protection/Receive/Buy Receiver/Sell Payer = Buy; and Sell/Buy protection/Pay/Buy Payer/Sell Receiver = Sell. ASW is counted as a buy of the bond and a paid swap, and RASW as a sell of the bond and a received swap. For rating definitions under both models, please see "Definitions for trades (Rates and Credit)" above.
For the distribution of non-independent ratings published by HSBC, please see the disclosure page available at http://www.hsbcnet.com/gbm/financial-regulation/investment-recommendations-disclosures.
To view a list of all the independent fundamental recommendations disseminated by HSBC during the preceding 12-month period, and the location where we publish our quarterly distribution of non-fundamental recommendations, please use the following links to access the disclosure page:
Clients of Global Research and Global Banking and Markets: www.research.hsbc.com/A/Disclosures
Clients of HSBC Private Banking: www.research.privatebank.hsbc.com/Disclosures
HSBC and its affiliates will from time to time sell to and buy from customers the securities/instruments, both equity and debt (including derivatives) of companies covered in HSBC Research on a principal or agency basis or act as a market maker or liquidity provider in the securities/instruments mentioned in this report.
Analysts, economists, and strategists are paid in part by reference to the profitability of HSBC which includes investment banking, sales & trading, and principal trading revenues.
Whether, or in what time frame, an update of this analysis will be published is not determined in advance. Non-U.S. analysts may not be associated persons of HSBC Securities (USA) Inc, and therefore may not be subject to FINRA Rule 2241 or FINRA Rule 2242 restrictions on communications with the subject company, public appearances and trading securities held by the analysts.
Economic sanctions imposed by the EU and OFAC prohibit transacting or dealing in new debt or equity of Russian SSI entities.
This report does not constitute advice in relation to any securities issued by Russian SSI entities on or after July 16 2014 and as such, this report should not be construed as an inducement to transact in any sanctioned securities.
For disclosures in respect of any company mentioned in this report, please see the most recently published report on that company available at www.hsbcnet.com/research. HSBC Private Banking clients should contact their Relationship Manager for queries regarding other research reports. In order to find out more about the proprietary models used to produce this report, please contact the authoring analyst.
- This report is dated as at 05 November 2020.
- All market data included in this report are dated as at close 02 November 2020, unless a different date and/or a specific time of day is indicated in the report.
- HSBC has procedures in place to identify and manage any potential conflicts of interest that arise in connection with its Research business. HSBC's analysts and its other staff who are involved in the preparation and dissemination of Research operate and have a management reporting line independent of HSBC's Investment Banking business.
Information Barrier procedures are in place between the Investment Banking, Principal Trading, and Research businesses to ensure that any confidential and/or price sensitive information is handled in an appropriate manner.
- You are not permitted to use, for reference, any data in this document for the purpose of (i) determining the interest payable, or other sums due, under loan agreements or under other financial contracts or instruments, (ii) determining the price at which a financial instrument may be bought or sold or traded or redeemed, or the value of a financial instrument, and/or (iii) measuring the performance of a financial instrument or of an investment fund.
Production & distribution disclosures
- This report was produced and signed off by the author on 04 Nov 2020 08:21 GMT.
- In order to see when this report was first disseminated please see the disclosure page available at https://www.research.hsbc.com/R/34/cFqCjmB
Legal entities as at 1 September 2020
'UAE' HSBC Bank Middle East Limited, DIFC; HSBC Bank Middle East Limited, Dubai; ‘HK’ The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, Hong Kong; ‘TW’ HSBC Securities (Taiwan) Corporation Limited; 'CA' HSBC Securities (Canada) Inc.; HSBC France, S.A., Madrid, Milan, Stockholm; ‘DE’ HSBC Trinkaus & Burkhardt AG, Düsseldorf; 000 HSBC Bank (RR), Moscow; ‘IN’ HSBC Securities and Capital Markets (India) Private Limited, Mumbai; ‘JP’ HSBC Securities (Japan) Limited, Tokyo; ‘EG’ HSBC Securities Egypt SAE, Cairo; ‘CN’ HSBC Investment Bank Asia Limited, Beijing Representative Office; The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, Singapore Branch; The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, Seoul Securities Branch; The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, Seoul Branch; HSBC Securities (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd, Johannesburg; HSBC Bank plc, London, Tel Aviv; ‘US’ HSBC Securities (USA) Inc, New York; HSBC Yatirim Menkul Degerler AS, Istanbul; HSBC México, SA, Institución de Banca Múltiple, Grupo Financiero HSBC; HSBC Bank Australia Limited; HSBC Bank Argentina SA; HSBC Saudi Arabia Limited; The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, New Zealand Branch incorporated in Hong Kong SAR; The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, Bangkok Branch; PT Bank HSBC Indonesia; HSBC Qianhai Securities Limited; Banco HSBC S.A.
Issuer of report The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited Level 19, 1 Queen's Road Central Hong Kong SAR Telephone: +852 2843 9111 Fax: +852 2801 4138 Website: www.research.hsbc.com
The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited (“HSBC”) has issued this research material. The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited is regulated by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority. If it is received by a customer of an affiliate of HSBC, its provision to the recipient is subject to the terms of business in place between the recipient and such affiliate. In the UK, this publication is distributed by HSBC Bank plc for the information of its Clients (as defined in the Rules of FCA) and those of its affiliates only. Nothing herein excludes or restricts any duty or liability to a customer which HSBC Bank plc has under the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 or under the Rules of FCA and PRA. A recipient who chooses to deal with any person who is not a representative of HSBC Bank plc in the UK will not enjoy the protections afforded by the UK regulatory regime. HSBC Bank plc is regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority and the Prudential Regulation Authority. In Australia, this publication has been distributed by The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited (ABN 65 117 925 970, AFSL 301737) for the general information of its “wholesale” customers (as defined in the Corporations Act 2001). Where distributed to retail customers, this research is distributed by HSBC Bank Australia Limited (ABN 48 006 434 162, AFSL No. 232595). These respective entities make no representations that the products or services mentioned in this document are available to persons in Australia or are necessarily suitable for any particular person or appropriate in accordance with local law. No consideration has been given to the particular investment objectives, financial situation or particular needs of any recipient. This publication is distributed in New Zealand by The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, New Zealand Branch incorporated in Hong Kong SAR.
This material is distributed in Japan by HSBC Securities (Japan) Limited. HSBC Securities (USA) Inc. accepts responsibility for the content of this research report prepared by its non-US foreign affiliate. The information contained herein is under no circumstances to be construed as investment advice and is not tailored to the needs of the recipient. All US persons receiving and/or accessing this report and intending to effect transactions in any security discussed herein should do so with HSBC Securities (USA) Inc. in the United States and not with its non-US foreign affiliate, the issuer of this report. In Korea, this publication is distributed by either The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, Seoul Securities Branch ("HBAP SLS") or The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, Seoul Branch ("HBAP SEL") for the general information of professional investors specified in Article 9 of the Financial Investment Services and Capital Markets Act (“FSCMA”). This publication is not a prospectus as defined in the FSCMA. It may not be further distributed in whole or in part for any purpose. Both HBAP SLS and HBAP SEL are regulated by the Financial Services Commission and the Financial Supervisory Service of Korea. In Singapore, this publication is distributed by The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, Singapore Branch for the general information of institutional investors or other persons specified in Sections 274 and 304 of the Securities and Futures Act (Chapter 289) (“SFA”) and accredited investors and other persons in accordance with the conditions specified in Sections 275 and 305 of the SFA. Only Economics or Currencies reports are intended for distribution to a person who is not an Accredited Investor, Expert Investor or Institutional Investor as defined in SFA. The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, Singapore Branch accepts legal responsibility for the contents of reports pursuant to Regulation 32C(1)(d) of the Financial Advisers Regulations. This publication is not a prospectus as defined in the SFA. This publication is not a prospectus as defined in the SFA. It may not be further distributed in whole or in part for any purpose. The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited Singapore Branch is regulated by the Monetary
Authority of Singapore. Recipients in Singapore should contact a "Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, Singapore Branch" representative in respect of any matters arising from, or in connection with this report. Please refer to The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited Singapore Branch’s website at www.business.hsbc.com.sg for contact details. HSBC México, S.A., Institución de Banca Múltiple, Grupo Financiero HSBC is authorized and regulated by Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público and Comisión Nacional Bancaria y de Valores (CNBV).
In Canada, this document has been distributed by HSBC Securities (Canada) Inc. (member IIROC), and/or its affiliates. The information contained herein is under no circumstances to be construed as investment advice in any province or territory of Canada and is not tailored to the needs of the recipient. No securities commission or similar regulatory authority in Canada has reviewed or in any way passed judgment upon these materials, the information contained herein or the merits of the securities described herein, and any representation to the contrary is an offense. In Brazil, this document has been distributed by Banco HSBC S.A. ("HSBC Brazil"), and/or its affiliates. As required by Instruction No. 598/18 of the Securities and Exchange Commission of Brazil (Comissão de Valores Mobiliários), potential conflicts of interest concerning (i) HSBC Brazil and/or its affiliates; and (ii) the analyst(s) responsible for authoring this report are stated on the chart above labelled "HSBC & Analyst Disclosures".
Any recommendations contained in it are intended for the professional investors to whom it is distributed. This material is not and should not be construed as an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to purchase or subscribe for any investment. HSBC has based this document on information obtained from sources it believes to be reliable but which it has not independently verified; HSBC makes no guarantee, representation or warranty and accepts no responsibility or liability as to its accuracy or completeness. Expressions of opinion are those of HSBC only and are subject to change without notice. From time to time research analysts conduct site visits of covered issuers. HSBC policies prohibit research analysts from accepting payment or reimbursement for travel expenses from the issuer for such visits. The decision and responsibility on whether or not to invest must be taken by the reader. HSBC and its affiliates and/or their officers, directors and employees may have positions in any securities mentioned in this document (or in any related investment) and may from time to time add to or dispose of any such securities (or investment). HSBC and its affiliates may act as market maker or have assumed an underwriting commitment in the securities of any companies discussed in this document (or in related investments), may sell them to or buy them from customers on a principal basis and may also perform or seek to perform banking or underwriting services for or relating to those companies. This material may not be further distributed in whole or in part for any purpose. No consideration has been given to the particular investment objectives, financial situation or particular needs of any recipient. (070905)
If you are an HSBC Private Banking (“PB”) customer with approval for receipt of relevant research publications by an applicable HSBC legal entity, you are eligible to receive this publication. To be eligible to receive such publications, you must have agreed to the applicable HSBC entity’s terms and conditions (“KRC Terms”) for access to the KRC, and the terms and conditions of any other internet banking service offered by that HSBC entity through which you will access research publications using the KRC. Distribution of this publication is the sole responsibility of the HSBC entity with whom you have agreed the KRC Terms.
If you do not meet the aforementioned eligibility requirements please disregard this publication and, if you are a customer of PB, please notify your Relationship Manager. Receipt of research publications is strictly subject to the KRC Terms, which can be found at https://research.privatebank.hsbc.com/ – we draw your attention also to the provisions contained in the Important Notes section therein.
© Copyright 2020, The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, on any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited.
MCI (P) 016/02/2020, MCI (P) 087/10/2020